The existence of Allaah (God), the Most High, is proven by:
(i) the natural disposition,(ii) the intellect,(iii) the Revelation, and, (iv) what is experienced and perceived.
(i) As for the proof of the natural disposition for His existence: then every created being is created upon the natural disposition of belief in its Creator, without any previous thought or education. No one turns away from this natural disposition
except when his heart is taken over by that which will turn him away from it, as he said, ‘”Every child is born upon the natural disposition (al-fitrah), then his
parents change him into a Jew, or a Christian, or a Magian “ [Reported by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 2/262/no.467)].
(ii) As for the proof of the intellect (al- ‘aql) for the existence of Allaah, the Most
High, it is due to the fact that all these created things, the earlier ones and the later ones, must have a Creator who brought them into being, since it is not possible for any being to create itself, nor that it should just appear by chance without a cause. It is not possible for anything to bring itself into existence since something cannot create itself; this is because before its existence it did not exist, so how could it be a creator?!
Nor is it possible that it just appeared by chance without a cause, this is because everything coming into existence must have someone that brought it into existence.Furthermore this astounding arrangement and harmonious order, and the coherence between the causes and their effects and between all that exists makes it impossible that it all came into existence randomly and without a cause. When there is something which comes about randomly having no order at the root of its existence, then how can it exist and remain in a state of order and arrangement, and how can it develop in such a state?!
Since it is not possible that the creation brought itself into existence, nor that it came into being randomly and without a cause, then it has to be the case that it has One who brought it into being, and He is Allaah, the Lord of all creation.
Allaah, the Most High, mentions this intellectual proof and this decisive and conclusive argument, He, the Most High, says, “Were they created by nothing or did they create themselves?!” [Soorah at-Toor (52):35]
Which means that they did not come into being without a creator, and they did not create themselves, so it is established for certain that their Creator is Allaah, the Exalted and the Most High. This is why when Jubayr ibn Mut’im, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, heard Allaah’s Messenger recite Soorah at-Toor until the Aayaat: “Were they created by nothing, or did they create themselves?! Or did they create the heavens and the earth?! Nay they have no certainty; or do they have
possession of the treasures of your Lord?! Or are they the ones having power and control over the affairs?!” [Soorah at-Toor (52):35-38] Jubayr was a mushrik (polytheist) at the time, he said afterwards, “My heart almost flew, and this was when eemaan (faith) first settled in my heart” [Reported by al-Bukhaaree
(Eng. transl. 6/357/no.377)].
Let us also give an example which will make this clear: If a person told you about a decorated palace, surrounded by gardens, through which rivers flowed, and that it was filled with carpets and couches, and decorated with all sorts of adornments and treasures. Then he said to you that this palace and all within it brought itself into existence, or that it just suddenly appeared like that without any cause or creator. Straight away you would deny that and declare that he was lying, and you would take his words to be foolishness. So can it then be permissible to say that this vast creation, containing the earth and its sky, its stars and all within it, and its amazing and astounding order, brought itself into being, or that it just appeared without anyone creating it?!
(iii) As for the proof of Revelation for the existence of Allaah, the Most High, then all of the Revealed Books state that. Also the rulings and laws sent down in Revelation which ensure the wellbeing of the creation are a proof that they are from a Wise Lord who knows everything that benefits His creation. Also the information about the creation contained in the Revelation, which is testified to by reality proves that it comes from a Lord who is fully capable of creating and bringing about whatever He informed of.
(iv) As for the proof contained in what is experienced and perceived for the existence of Allaah, then that is from two angles:
[a] We hear and see those who supplicate being answered, and those in distress who call upon Him being relieved to such an extent that it is a certain proof of His existence. Allaah, the Most High, says, “And remember Nooh, when he called upon Allaah to destroy his unbelieving folk who obstinately denied and rejected Allaah, so Allaah answered his supplication and saved him and the
Believers from his family.” [Soorah al-Ambiyaa (21):76]
Allaah, the Most High, says, “When you sought aid and deliverance of your Lord and He responded to you.” [Soorah al-Anfaal (8):9]
It is reported from Anas ibn Maalik, radiyallaahu ‘anhu, that a bedouin Arab entered the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah whilst the Prophet (SAW)) was delivering the khutbah, and said: “O Messenger of Allaah, property is being destroyed, the dependants have become hungry, so supplicate to Allaah for us.” So he raised up his hands and supplicated. So clouds like mountains appeared, and he did not come down from his mimbar before I saw rain flowing down his beard. Then on the succeeding Jumu’ah that same bedouin or someone else stood and said: “O Messenger of Allaah, the houses are collapsing and wealth is being flooded, so supplicate to Allaah for us.” So he raised his hands and said: “O Allaah, around us and not upon us” and he did not point to any direction except that it cleared” [Collected by al-Bukhaaree (Eng. transl. 2/26/no.55)].
It has been something always witnessed till this day, that those who call upon Allaah, the Most High, sincerely and fulfil the conditions for the supplication to be answered are indeed responded to.
[b] The clear signs known as ‘miracles’ brought by the Prophets and seen by the people or heard of by them are a decisive proof for the One Who sent them, i.e. Allaah, the Most High. This is because they were things outside the realm of human ability, and were done by Allaah, the Most High, to aid and help His messengers.
An example is the sign given to Moosaa, ‘alayhis-salaam, when Allaah, the Most
High, commanded him to strike the sea with his staff. So he struck it and twelve
separate dry pathways were opened up through it, the water being like mountains
between them Allaah, the Most High, says: “Then we inspired Moosaa, ‘Strike
the ocean with your staff’ and it split into separate parts, and each part was
like a huge mountain.” [Soorah ash-Shu’araa (26):63]
A second example: that which was given to Muhammad when Quraysh asked for a sign,so he pointed to the moon and it split into two and that was seen by the people. Concerning this Allaah, the Most High, says, “The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been split; and if the mushriks see a sign proving the truth of the Prophethood of Muhammad they turn away from it and say: ‘This is magic which will pass away.‘” [Soorah al-Qamar (54): l-2] So these are signs which were seen and perceived which Allaah, the Most High, caused to occur as supporting proof and assistance for His Messengers, and they are decisive proofs of His existence.
Taken From Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islaam Page 66_68